‘Traveller’s diarrhoea’ is the term used to describe diarrhoea experienced by people travelling to foreign countries. It is most common in young adults and can affect up to 60% of travellers. High risk destinations include Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Latin America and the condition is most likely to occur in people travelling from developed to developing countries. In the majority of cases, traveller’s diarrhoea can last for 5-8 days and can therefore be limiting to a holiday experience as well as a health concern. As diarrhoea often leads to dehydration, it is important to rehydrate the body by drinking plenty of fluids (preferably water, fruit juice or soup) and avoiding dairy, coffee and alcohol.
In most occurrences, traveller’s diarrhoea is caused by bacteria from contaminated food or water in a foreign environment. To reduce the risk of developing this illness there are simple precautions travellers can take, mainly avoiding drinking tap water, ice, unpasteurised milk and dairy. There are also certain foods that can present a risk of transmitting bacteria, including raw or undercooked meat, poultry, seafood, raw fruits and vegetables.
In general, the symptoms of traveller’s diarrhoea are experienced within the first week or two of being in a foreign environment. They usually begin abruptly and can either occur during travel or soon after returning home. The main symptom is an increase in frequency of bowel movements (typically 3 or more loose stools in 24hrs) which can also be accompanied by other symptoms including cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, bloating and loss of appetite.
Ciprofloxacin is an antibiotic that effectively treats enteric bacterial infections by preventing the reproduction of bacteria. It is therefore not used in cases of diarrhoea caused by a virus or parasite. It is generally accepted that a sudden onset of traveller’s diarrhoea is caused by a bacterial infection and can be treated accordingly using ciprofloxacin.
The Ciprofloxacin 500mg tablets should be taken twice a day at equally spaced intervals for up to 3 days and it is advised to drink plenty of water while taking this medication to avoid developing kidney problems. Ciprofloxacin should be used in circumstances where there is no immediate medical assistance available. It is possible to request a private prescription in advance of travelling if it is expected there will be no access to a doctor. DrFelix also offers other antibiotics like Azithromycin and Loperamide to treat traveller’s diarrhoea.
The most common side effects of using ciprofloxacin are feeling or being sick and diarrhoea, although these only affect 1 in 10 users. There are no known interactions between alcohol and ciprofloxacin.
Rare side effects of this medication include, but are not limited to; bloody or black stools, changes in urination, chest pain or discomfort, chills or fever, dizziness or light-headedness when standing suddenly, and muscle pain or stiffness. It can also cause swelling or tearing of a tendon, especially in the Achilles tendon of the heel, which is more likely in people over 60, those taking steroid medication, or people who have had a kidney, liver or lung transplant.